Emotional Support Animals and Housing Laws in Virginia

In Virginia, support animals are considered a "reasonable accommodation" when it comes to housing laws. However, these pets must meet certain requirements.

While this may seem counter-intuitive, there’s very little point in thinking of any type of support animal as an “animal” when it comes to Virginia housing laws.

This is because, under both Virginia and federal law, there’s little to no difference between an emotional support animal and the wheelchair ramp that helps you enter your building.

Instead, you should think of your animal as a reasonable accommodation for a specific, provable disability.

In this article, we’ll quickly cover the basics of how emotional support animals interact with Virginia’s housing laws.

We’ll also provide several additional links and resources that can help you understand the Commonwealth’s stance on this issue.

Emotional Support Animal Basics in Virginia

Cute service dog and blurred man in wheelchair, view through door

To simplify the entire issue into a single sentence:

Landlords must make reasonable accommodations to people with disabilities in order to provide them with housing opportunities that are equal to those enjoyed by able-bodied individuals.

As a conceptual example, let’s say that you were hired for a retail job where you have to stand in front of a register for hours on end.

However, let’s also say that you have a disability that affects your ability to stand for more than 30 minutes at a time.

In this scenario, it may be a reasonable accommodation to ask your employer for a stool to sit on during your shift on the register.

This stool would be reasonable because it’s not unnecessarily disruptive to the business as a whole.

Further, the stool itself would meet the definition of an accommodation because the business would be slightly bending its own rules to help you with your issue.

The same general principle applies to housing in Virginia (though housing accommodations follow slightly different rules and procedures).

Basically, individuals with disabilities may request reasonable accommodations from their landlords, provided that these accommodations allow for an equal enjoyment of the property.

Such an accommodation would normally be a small change to, or exemption from, the unit’s normal rules, standards, or procedures.

For example, a rental unit that normally bans pets could bend its rules to allow for a service or emotional support animal, provided that both the animal and the owner meet all of the legal requirements for such an accommodation.

A Quick Glance at Virginia’s Fair Housing Laws

As noted by the Virginia Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation (DPOR), a housing provider must allow a disabled resident to keep an assistance animal if three conditions are met:

  1. The resident must meet the definition of “handicapped” as defined in the fair housing law;
  2. The housing provider must know about, or should have known about, the resident’s handicap (this requirement is usually met when the tenant notifies the housing provider of the handicap and asks for an accommodation);
  3. The accommodation is necessary to afford the disabled resident an equal opportunity to use and enjoy the dwelling.

Note, however, that this is an ordered list of conditions.

In Virginia, the housing provider must first establish that an individual meets the legal definition of disabled, and only then evaluate whether the reasonable accommodation (the presence of the animal) is necessary.

Proving the Necessity of an Emotional Support Animal

Generally, you can prove the necessity of your emotional support animal by presenting a letter from a certified medical professional that establishes a credible “nexus” (“relationship”) between the presence of the animal and your equal use of the property.

In this way, while some other rules may apply to the animal, the only necessary certification for an assistance animal is the owner’s own medical documentation.

For this reason, housing providers may require a resident to provide verification of their disability should it not be visible.

This is because they want to establish a relationship between your disability and your need for the animal.

Establishing a Reasonable Accommodation

Once the housing provider has established (1) that you meet the legal definition of a handicapped individual, and (2) that an accommodation is necessary for your equal enjoyment of the dwelling, they can evaluate whether or not the specific accommodation you suggested (your animal) is reasonable.

This means that you must draw a direct relationship between the presence of your animal and your disability.

Further, you must prove that the presence of the animal is necessary to your equal enjoyment of the unit.

In this fashion, housing providers can deny accommodation requests if there is no disability-related need for the accommodation.

Note, however, that this is very much a grey area of the law, and what is necessary and reasonable may change on a case-by-case basis.

For this reason, it’s often wise to work with your housing provider to come to find some middle ground on the issue before you jump straight to litigation over a rejected application.

Support Animal Certifications: A Note on Semantics

Guide dog helping blind man in the city.

As noted quite clearly by the Virginia DPOR:

“The ability to receive a reasonable accommodation is not based on one’s ownership of an assistance animal, but rests instead on the existence of a disability as defined by the fair housing law.”

Websites and organizations that offer “certificates” for support animals are generally for-profit entities, and their products are wholly unnecessary for housing accommodations under Virginia law.

Remember, there is no such thing as a centralized assistance animal register, as the presence of such a register would go against the whole point of emotional support animals in the first place.

Namely, support animals are articles of property, and your landlord is accommodating your possession and use of this property by modifying existing policies regarding the possession of such animals.

Housing entities can not (and should not) require special training or certifications for assistance animals, because the point of the law in the first place is to accommodate a disability, not your ownership of a pet.


Cute Beagle dog looking out an open window waiting for his owner

As noted by the Virginia Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation:

“Fair Housing Law requires housing providers to accommodate a person with a disability by changing or modifying a rule, policy, or practice when doing so is necessary to give the disabled person equal opportunity to use and enjoy his or her unit.”

In regards to emotional support animals, the rule that individuals often challenge is a restriction or fine on having a pet in the unit.

In such situations, it may be a reasonable accommodation for the housing provider to waive this rule or fine, provided that you can show a credible nexus between your disability, the animal, and your equal enjoyment of the unit.

If your housing provider rejects your application for such a reasonable accommodation, not all hope is lost.

You may just have to prove a more accurate nexus between the presence of the animal and your equal enjoyment of the unit.

Regardless, it’s important that you review Virginia’s rules and procedures on the matter (linked below).

In more serious cases, such as when you experience damages as a result of the rejection, it may be beneficial to speak with an attorney about your case.

Further Reading:

Other Resources:

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A Client-First Approach to Legal Services

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